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# Computation

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• Hilbert’s Ten’s problem, 1900
• Entscheidungsproblem, 1928

# Computation

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• Entscheidungsproblem, 1928
• GĂ¶del’s incompleteness theorem

# Computation

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• Entscheidungsproblem, 1928
• Turing machine

# Computation

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• Entscheidungsproblem, 1928
• $\lambda$-calculus

# Computation

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• von Neumann computing model
• EDVAC

# Turing Machine

1. A completely mechanical device (1928)

envisioned by Alan Turing as an intuitive formalism to describe the non-existing phenomenon of machine driven reasoning, now known as computation.

2. Realized into an actual design (1945)

John von Neumann designed an electronic version to simulate the mechanical definition of a TM in a document known as First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, 1945.

3. Turing-complete

TM is the most powerful computing model we know. Up to now, we don’t know any other computing models more powerful than a TM.

# Computational power of TM

Church-Turing Thesis

If a procedure (algorithm) can be executed by any computer, then it can be executed by a Turing Machine.

Turing Complete

If a mechanism is equivalent to TM, then it’s called Turing Complete.

# Simulation of a function

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Computable functions

A function $f$ is computable if:

• Its input can be encoded as a binary string: $2^*$
• Its output can be encoded as a binary string: $2^*$
• Its evaluation can always be carried out by a TM.

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1. Any computable function can be implemented by a TM.

2. Any TM is some computable function.

Why is a TM always a function (over binary strings)?

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# Universal TM

Consider a TM: $M$.

1. It’s a function $M:2^*\to 2^*$

2. It’s mechanical description can be encoded as a binary string.

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Function eval takes two inputs - a TM and an input, and it computes the output.

$$\mathrm{eval} :\mathrm{TM} \times 2^* \to 2^*$$

1. It’s input can be encoded as binary strings.

2. It can be carried out by a procedure.

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By Church-Turing thesis, eval is computable, so there is a TM for it.

Definition Universal TM

The TM $\mathbf{U}$ that computes eval is called universal.

# Universal TM

• The TM $\mathbf{U}$ initializes the tape with the binary encoding of:

• a TM, $M$

• an input, $x$

• It outputs $\mathbf{eval}(M, x)$

Modern Computer:

• $M$ is the program

• $x$ is the input to the program

• $\mathbf{U}$ is the general purpose computer

# TM-Programming

1. We just need a single TM, namely $\mathbf{U}$.

2. The universal programming language is the encoding of $M$.

# Summary

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• Turing Machine is a mechanically realizable device.
• TM is as powerful (but a lot slower) as any modern computers.
• There is a very special TM that is called the Universal TM. It can be programmed!
• !
Programming Languages, Ken Pu